The 2014 national curriculum requires learners “to move fluently between representations of mathematical ideas.” Gattegno’s Cuisenaire resources are a proven way to meet this aim. In contrast to the traditional counting first approach Gattegno explores the algebraic structure of number before arithmetic. Mathematical ideas are experienced as concrete actions with Cuisenaire rods, virtual actions on mental images and written symbol systems. In these workshops we will discuss how to implement the cycle “concrete – virtual – symbolic” to meet the Year 1 aims. Delegates are encouraged to bring Cuisenaire rods, or tablet computers with the NumBlox app installed (iPad and Android).